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Putuparri Tom Lawford

Ngumpan workshop, 2008

Location: Ngumpan

Date: 2008

Event Description: The late 2008 Ngumpan workshop revolved around the intergenerational transfer of cultural knowledge, and was one of the most transformative events of the project. Senior Ngurra artist Ned Cox, who had led the very first bush trip to Jilji Bore, was the instigator of this event. Coordinated by cultural advisor and senior translator Putuparri Tom Lawford, Ned and other senior men and women taught teenagers and children carving and ceremonial skills, and passed on the knowledge of important dances and body decoration to both young people and adults.
Four dances were performed by new generations at the Ngumpan workshop: little boys danced Kurtal, young men performed Majarrka and girls performed Mangamanga, all for the first time. One important ceremonial dance, Kaningarra, was revived for the first time in many years following the death of its custodian. The dance for Kaningarra, which is now Well 48 on the Canning Stock Route, was passed down to a new generation of Kaningarra people by elders from closely related areas.

Art Centre(s): Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre, Mangkaja Arts Resource Agency, Ngurra Artists

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Putuparri Tom Lawford

Putuparri Tom Lawford - songlines, technology [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Putuparri Tom Lawford describes songlines and boundaries, and talks about how much learning there is in becoming a law man. He also talks about technology, and how sometimes it is needed, but that it can also distract from learning about Country.

Date: 2012-06
Art centre(s): CSR Project, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Language spoken: English
Catalogue number: CSROH_279_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Date: 2012-06
Transcribed By: Mollie Hewitt
Location Recorded: Newman Creek

Cultural Protocols: Public Access
Access: Public
Notes: This was filmed on the repatriation trip to Newman in 2012. It was transcribed for subtitles, and it is therefore incomplete (and missing interviewer questions) and includes time codes from the film footage.
Full transcript: [Time Code: 22.49]

[Tom Lawford drawing in the sand]

Tom Lawford: Big Country, Australia. Canning Stock Route is just one bit, one little bit there. We will only focus on this bit.

These are the lines right, songlines that travel up and down the Countryside. And across, they go across. And every little circle, this is different tribes, this is their Country. And this mob can’t intrude into their Country, they can’t trespass. They got their own stories. Every little square. This is their own area and you can’t trespass.

[Pointing to his map drawn in the sand] You got up north here, Halls Creek, Billiluna, Halls Creek. And Wiluna down south. And you got the Stock Road. The Canning Stock Road cuts through all these different places. And there is Wells, some say waterholes, in people’s Country.

There are wells on the Canning Stock Route but they are people’s water. Where the Canning Stock Route cut through it took over our water and they made wells. And in a way Alfred Canning, he trespassed onto people’s land, Country.

He took over their waters for animals, to feed cattle. So these lines here, they are all songlines. That is how people are connected, they follow these songline – down, up and across.

[Tom is asked to explain songlines.]

Songlines are ... there’s Dreaming songs for the public and for women and children to hear and there are secret, sacred songlines only for men only. And these songlines they follow a being – like a person. Say this being travelled across this Country and they followed a songline through and the songline even travel across the border – to the territory [Northern Territory]. And then people follow it and then these guys from across the border [of the Northern Territory] they take it on.

Yeah and these songlines have different languages. One songline, one language sing it and then it change for another mob, another language sing it. But it is the same [story].

Well the Canning Stock Route, it broke the Country up. Most of these songlines up north, across here and some down here.

People were living in harmony, in peace. They had their own areas. One mob got their little square there. And the Canning Stock Route it cuts through different people’s land.

[Time code: 27.25]

[Tom is asked about how you know where the boundaries are for different people’s Country.]

Landmarks. Like that hill over there. So if you go over that hill over there it could be another tribe’s Country. You can only go as far as this creek but don’t go beyond that creek.

Well it’s in us because we are Wangkajunga tribe and our area is here [pointing at the sand map] and it’s Martu tribe here and you got another tribe here. And your tribe, you know how far your boundaries are.

It is right across Australia. There is too many tribes, right down to Tasmania.

Well some other tribes, some storyline or songline they cut through that tribe and through other tribes too. You know this songline comes from that area, through this area, cuts through and finishes in this mob area here.

That song itself will tell you. When they are singing a song, it’s a story, it will tell you how far it comes from this tribe to another tribe. And that is the good thing about all Western Desert people, it that we got the one songline that follows on. Even though we come from different parts of the Great Sandy Desert.

We still do that, practice that during our law time. Like the ladies got their own, you can’t interfere with women, men can’t.

That is why you gotta keep it [all that knowledge] in your head. You gotta know, because without that, what would you be? You would just be like a leaf blowing in the wind. You’d be nothing. That is why it is really important to learn from the old people, keep learning. Because, in our culture you don’t count yourself as a man, as a law man, until you know everything. Not half.

[Tom is asked how you become a law man.]

You can’t claim it for yourself, saying, ‘I’m a law man.’ You gotta go through everything to say it. Then the old people gotta go, ‘you’re right, you’ve finished your thing’. Not on your own, they gotta say it. You gotta finish your culture to be how they are. You can be fifty or forty to be a law man, could be eighty. Not twenty or thirty. Not until they say you are one.

[Time code: 32.20]

Some sacred stuff when you keep coming you get taught the real stuff. It gets harder and harder.
Even coming here, to a place like this you are learning. THE COUNTRY IS TEACHING YOU. EVEN THE TREES CAN TEACH YOU.

You gotta cut away technology from your head. Leave the mobile phone and computer aside. And then you have gotta think about your home, for your culture. If you keep that in your mind, and think about what you want to be and how you want to be, without these other interruptions, you can make it in life.

Mobile phone won’t get you anywhere, technology won’t get you anywhere. But we have to use technology, everything is changing, the Country is changing. If you go back to Country, back out to the bush we need a GPS now to find our way back. Most of the old people are all gone now to show us the way through the Country. We need the technology now and then, but not all the time.

To live in this world now you need have both, you have to learn white man way and your own way to live in this world. Otherwise you will never survive.

Yeah I feel it [responsibility]. But looking at things now, how things are changing, you can feel it. And what’s happening to our mob you know, with alcohol and drugs, with rubbish things that are killing them slowly. And it is a big responsibility. Especially when you got kids like these mob here, you gotta be there for them, not for you. You gotta be there for the next mob coming up.

END
Video recording: 03_DAY_THREE
Source: CSROH_279_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Putuparri Tom Lawford; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Putuparri Tom Lawford

 

Putuparri Tom Lawford - Ngumpan workshop 2008 [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Putuparri Tom Lawford talks about the Ngumpan workshop in 2008. He discusses the importance of learning to make artefacts and also discusses the Kaningarra dance that was performed for the first time in a long time.

Date: 2008
Art centre(s): CSR Project, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Language spoken: English
Catalogue number: CSROH_291_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Date: 2008
Transcribed By: Monique La Fontaine
Location Recorded: Mount Newman Creek

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on Use
Access: Public
Notes: This transcript is transcribed from Karen Dayman’s fieldnotes.
Full transcript: [Speaking about the Ngumpan workshop in September 2008] Putuparri Tom Lawford: It was good for young ones and old people. Old people were happy because all the young ones been dancing and learning artefact making, karli [boomerangs], ngurti [coolamon] and mukurru [hitting sticks] and collecting materials for ceremony. They been passing down to their grandkids so they can carry on that dancing. Dancing is the easy part, what we need to do now is get them to learn the songs for the dances. Kaningarra was never performed for a long time, so what we did at Ngumpan was get the old fellas together and we talked about trying to get Kaningarra back, the dance, the songs. There’s only one old fella [Spider Snell] who still knows how to sing that song as well as the old ladies - all the bosses for Kaningarra have passed away. Spider wanted to pass it onto the rightful owners before he passed away. So it was good, all the old people been singing it and teaching it to Pampirla [Hansen Boxer] because he’s a Kaningarra man and he can carry that on. Old ladies been crying, it was like they were bringing something back from the dead. Spider’s a Kurtal man, we need to keep that carrying on because Kaningarra and Kurtal are like brothers in the Dreamtime. What I liked about that workshop was the young ones, the young kids, they were all humbugging me for dancing and making boomerang, they been waiting for us in town to take them out there. We go from generation to generation: from old people to our generation, and from me to younger generation. We had more kids there than adults. The little ones were really interested, and the young men were too. We had kids and we had teenagers, and they all wanted to have a go. And it made the old ones happy too to see their grandkids, sons and daughters up there dancing. If we had more time to get everybody involved, it would be good to focus on the girls next time, so the girls don’t miss out. We hope they keep it in their heads for the future. Some of the boys were learning how to make artefacts properly for the first time. After Ngumpan them young boys felt proud dancing in front of all their CFountrymen and different people from all over the Kimberley at the big KALACC festival at Mt Barnett, dancing their own dance from their ancestors, with the karli [boomerangs] and mukurru [hitting sticks] that they made with their own hands at Ngumpan. And it made old people and me proud too. END
Source: CSROH_291_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Putuparri Tom Lawford; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Putuparri Tom Lawford

 

Putuparri Tom Lawford - effects of the Canning Stock Route [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Putuparri Tom Lawford talks about the effects the Canning Stock Route had on the Aboriginal communities who lived in that area.

Art centre(s): CSR Project, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Catalogue number: CSROH_295_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Cultural Protocols: Public Access
Access: Public
Full transcript: Nicole Ma: So Tom, can you tell us a little bit about this Country? What it is to you? Putuparri Tom Lawford: This Country is Walmajarri Country. NM: You know your relationship to this Country, what used to be here? TL: I think it’s on my grandfather’s side I think. Grandfather used to travel up around here. Nyarna, a place called Nyarna. Most of the people who are living here other then my family. NM: And what did they used to do around here? TL: I don’t really know much about this Country, I don’t know what, back at the Goollong [?] area. NM: Coming on this trip, you know you have seen these wells, what do you think about that? TL: Good, yeah. Because all them wells, like I’ve been hearing the stories from old people talking about that Country. I’ve been hearing stories like when I was a kid. It like remind, bring back memories from them old people telling me stories. Most of them all dead. But where they used to roam. Meet other groups of people, other tribe. NM: So what did they used to do around here? TL: Well, there used to be free before roaming around till someone came around and started pastoral companies, bringing cattle in. And made them work for nothing. Building yards. NM: And what do you think about the Canning Stock Route, did it have an effect? TL: Yeah, yeah, it had an effect on people. It mainly people went everywhere and people went to Wiluna, family went to Wiluna another family come up this way. You got that artist from Tennant Creek. He from Dongara and he ended up in Tennant Creek from the Canning Stock Route. NM: So did it mix everything up? TL: Yeah, it mixed everything up. Families, you know, all got drifted apart, a long way apart. All because of a lousy stock route just to take cattle from here to Wiluna. NM: So as you came along here how did you feel about it? TL: Mainly looking at them wells. Them wells, they’ve been put in there by the Alfred Canning. But them wells were there before he ever existed. Aboriginal people knew about that water a long time before he came onto the scene. Without them people there wouldn’t be a Canning Stock Route. Because, he, I don’t know somehow forced them people to show him where the water was. So he made, shutting them up, starving them for water and let them go and track them. NM: So before that happened what was going on? TL: Brother was living in harmony. And along came this buddy with a big idea of opening up that Kimberly from here to Wiluna. Fuck everything up. NM: Could you talk a bit about what water means? TL: What it means is. Water is. Especially out there in the desert, it’s important because it’s a dry Country, you know, and people need the water to survive on hot days especially on a drought, people know where there is living water. On a good season there is rock holes, you know hills, soak water, but the main water was the other one that people used to hang on. NM: Can you explain a bit about living water? TL: Living water is like a story like in Dreamtime before snakes, they talk about rainbow serpent snakes and in Dreamtime they were human. They would travel around the Countryside making songs and stories and then they turned into a snake and get into the ground that where the water is, living water. Jila, we call him jila. NM: So that’s what you call living water? TL: Jila, living water yeah, jila. NM: So what happens if someone who doesn’t know the water comes to the water? TL: If you’re a stranger come through, stranger yeah, I don’t know. They probably get killed or eaten or something. Well there’s a snake in the water. Ah, but a lot of people out there they know what to do, you know? Other people who walk into another place they get a stone or chuck sand into the water or get a stone and rub it in their armpit. Chuck it in the water. And then they drink the water. NM: Then it’s okay? TL: Yeah. NM: But a lot of people don’t know how to do that? TL: Yeah, not these things. NM: And then what do you think happens? TL: I don’t know, there might be rain or be wind storm. NM: So when Canning came here he didn’t know any of these stories? TL: Nothing, he didn’t know where the water was. He wouldn’t know where to go. So the only way he knew where to go was to get guards, Aboriginal guards and chain them up. Give them tobacco anything just to pay them and get them to show him where the live water was. NM: So that couldn’t have been too good for the communities? TL: Well, because, yeah, he gobbled up, some water was sacred to people like Well 35, it’s sacred really, sacred to that mob up there. Other mob. Like some place that’s sacred to us but he didn’t give a shit. He wanted water. NM: Do you think they would have tried to avoid telling him? TL: At the time them guards didn’t know any English, only water. Only water, kapi, he keeps them kapi, he shows them where the water was. Only way he know where the water was he get them salt meat and starved them for water. And let them go and follow their tracks. Then water there. NM: So it must have been a big shock for all. Can you talk about all of the different Countries? TL: Yeah, all of them, like the people that were taken are from other tribe, gone into unknown area for them because the barrier was halfway. And he even take them in. Taking them into another area boundary for other language tribe. NM: But that map doesn’t show that on there. TL: That map doesn’t show that. If you go into another boundary a different boundary. You get killed you get speared. NM: So when that road started they must have got a bit of a shock? TL: Yeah, they got a shock. No road really only just cattle travelling through. Through every waterholes. NM: ‘Cause you come from a big, can you tell us a bit about your background? TL: My father is a cattleman, horseman. He used to take cattle from Christmas Creek to Derby. Or sometimes to Broome. He didn’t go up this track the Canning Stock route. He did that, Christmas Creek to Derby of Broome. NM: And is your family very involved in it too? TL: Yeah, we got a cattle station back home. The only person who is driving cattle out is a big truck, yeah a big truck driving cattle. On a bitumen highway. Them days are gone, horse taking cattle to other places. NM: And did that change things when that happened? TL: Yeah, it changed things, people got no. It made people feel lazy because no, they used to be real hard worker in those days. Been hards, waking up sunrise facing sundown riding all day. Not like this machine they just lay back you know. They just get on the piss and that’s it. NM: So do you think when the trucks came in that a lot was ... ? TL: It put them out of the business. They had drover, all drovers lost their job driving cattle. Even horsemen. Nowadays you don’t see anybody on horse mustering. You see this horse on the sky. Helicopter. NM: So what does that mean for your community? TL: Well, you got to pay more money for that horse in the sky. For fuel and his hours for flying up. Whereas when you’ve got your man on the horse on the ground. It don’t cost much, just pay the wages. But with the helicopter you have to pay the fuel pay the hours and everything. A lot of money. NM: What about jobs? TL: Jobs. NM: Are many people losing jobs? TL: Yeah, people losing jobs. NM: Is that why they are going into town? TL: In our other place we just use chopper now and then but not most of the time. We got horses. We go on horseback. Do what our father used to do. NM: So how do you feel, the difference between being here and in your Country? TL: I like it here, I like the bush. I think that’s where I belong really. We be outside on the ground you can see the stars. Because when you go in the town there’s nothing, cars, lights, drunks. But what I really wanted to see was the young people on the trip. So they can learn about their Countr,y their, area, where they come from. Or their grandparents. Father, mother, come from. NM: Why is it important? TL: It’s important because they are going to be the future some day. And all of the old people, what we have now, they won’t be here too long. One day they will leave us and they gotta carry on their stories, Dreaming and things like that. Is that what them will do. Listen and start going out on these kind of trips. NM: What do you think will happen when you lose all of the old people? TL: I think it will be sad. If only a couple of people like me going out on these trips is that enough? You don’t need one person you need plenty. The more the better. NM: So you think you need to get them out here? TL: Yep, anywhere you know. Not just on the Canning Stock Route. Where their um ... where their grandfathers come from. Grandparent come from. So they can learn their story. Well me I’ve been everywhere, [XX] back, [XX] back. I know from my stock. NM: So can you just explain what it is like for you going out there, for you? TL: For me, going out there for me is like I learn my culture and my history of my people. Where they come from, where they live. Where they work. And their stories you know. My grandfather told me stories. My nana told me stories about ... END
Source: CSROH_295_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Putuparri Tom Lawford; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Putuparri Tom Lawford

 

Putuparri Tom Lawford - advising on the Canning Stock Route Project [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Putuparri Tom Lawford talks about his work as a cultural advisor on the Canning Stock Route Project, and speaks at length about the issues that surround the exhibition.

Date: 2009-11
Art centre(s): CSR Project, Mangkaja Arts Resource Agency, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Language spoken: English
Catalogue number: CSROH_214_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Date: 2009-11
Location Recorded: Old Halls Creek
Latitude/Longitude: -18.251269/127.782303

Cultural Protocols: Public Access
Access: Public
Full transcript: Nicole Ma: Maybe what we should do is just say who it is and the day. Putuparri Tom Lawford: So I look straight at that camera, or there? NM: Let’s see you looking at Carly. It’s good if you could do both, because you’re talking to her and you’re talking to the audience too so whatever you feel like. Carly Davenport: So we’re talking to Tom Lawford on the 18 November at Palm Springs I think it’s called, just outside of the top of Halls Creek … So Tom, you’ve been working on the project the longest out of everyone in terms of the full team. What, what do you think’s been the best thing that you’ve seen in working with all the other people from all the different areas coming together? TL: Best thing is seeing all their hard work coming together, one big area in Canberra and all the old people handed on that stuff, we got some sent with us and yeah, it’s all getting exciting, and yeah. CD: And you started working with the Return to Country trip in 2007 as cultural advisor and translator and you’ve been in that role ever since, and from that first big trip to Country, how have you seen the project grow? TL: Well from a little trip, it turned out to be a big trip and today it’s getting more big, and too all this stuff will be not only here in Australia but travellin’ round a good way to showcase Canning Stock Road where people come from and what it mean to them. CD: And what do you think it means to them? TL: The Canning Stock Road is place of spiritual, like a Dreaming place for old people and this fella just came along and put wells in there, and all that area is Countrymen people, but Dreaming place too. And another that thing he did, that road it move people away to different towns. And another way – it’s a good thing too so people know where they come from, and their families, and they can travel on the stock road to meet people they know quicker. CD: And for telling the story for history the right way, because a lot of people are telling us this, this is the right way it should be told for Fitzroy Crossing people, what do you think they value in the project? TL: Well, Fitzroy people, they’re from that area anyway, the Canning Stock Route area, and they all left to come into stations and town and, like it’s, to them it’s like showing where they come from and where they belong to, where there heart is really, what they paint, what people paint – it’s not line or anything, it there Country, how they see it and this project, yeah, gonna do real good for them and it’s gonna open a lot of eyes – white people eyes – to find out the history of the Canning Stock Route through Aboriginal people. CD: And do you think that Fitzroy Crossing people are really happy for that message to go all around the world? TL: Yeah, yeah, they all happy and welcome. CD: And tell us a little bit about your role, it’s been a really important one for everything we’ve done form the beginning, anything you wanted to say or talk about … TL: What I’m doing on the project really is making sure what you mob say or do is the way that we feel is culturally not the wrong way. Like getting stories from one people sometimes, you know they, don’t like telling stories, like they can tell you a story, good stories, but some people don’t tell you other stories because too sad or something, but yeah, my job is to make sure that everything is working smooth, and going on … following that one line, not turning off and anyway. CD: Yeah, you’ve really helped with helping for trust with all the old people especially, and young people to go yeah, that project, that team, they’re doing alright, and Putuparri’s working with them, and if they get off track, he’ll make sure they get curators on the right track, so it’s been really valuable. How’ve you found the young curators on the project so far? TL: Yeah they alright, they learning too, they alright, yeah they getting there. You know, you got Louise from Kununurra and she’s from, we’re all from a different tribe and a different area and working on this Canning Stock Route Project, and yeah she’s doing real good, getting there. CD: And Murungkurr Terry Murray? TL: Yeah, he’s an alright bloke, he, yeah, happy go lucky bloke, and he don’t like to talk too much but, he doing the best he can and yeah, and them three young curators, Hayley, Louise and Terry, they make them old people proud with what they’re doin’, and they should be proud because they, they up there, the main people. CD: Tom in your work for [KALACC - ?] and lots of different things, for that movie and all around the world, you’ve been doing lots of different things for your people. How do you feel, as a custodian of this project, that this message will be received from people around other countries? TL: Yeah, well I’m sure that a lot of people from other countries heard about the Canning Stock Route, but not through what we’re doing, what we’re doing is from a different way of what they’re seein’ or heard about the Canning Stock Route, like it’s through Indigenous people, through our people, how they are seeing the Canning Stock Route come to life. CD: Do you wanna talk a little bit about some of the histories, and things that you, that happened out there at all? TL: Yeah, I know a little bit about what happened, a lot of killings mainly, there’s all that, and our, most of our old people was working for all them mob, taking cattle up to Wyndham, and they were meeting people on the road, black people, bush people, and telling them you gotta go back this way, there’s a big mission there, and taking people back. CD: People were treated really roughly weren’t they? TL: Yeah, some people were treated real rough, and a couple of ladies got treated real bad too, there too, from Canning and his crew. CD: Do you reckon that arts a really good way of getting those stories out for people to accept and learn and talk about? TL: [nods] This project we’re doing, this project is doing what – the history thing, but real history that’s coming up through the project, through painting and stories, that’s where people will see what happened on the Canning Stock Route. They think, tourist think it’s just a road. You can travel on the Canning Stock Route, but the Canning Stock Route got a lot of history from Wiluna to [XX - ?]. CD: And your role, really importantly as translator, you know many languages, do you wanna talk a little bit about the different languages and the different groups, so the people can really understand that it’s not just one people? TL: Yeah, for the Canning Stock Route, there’s too many different language groups in a room , you know you got Martu people, [XX - ?] people, [XX - ?], [XX - ?] , you know, [XX - ?] all mixed and they all from one area, from the one road, but they’re all living in towns, you know some live in [XX - ?], Fitzroy, down here near Halls Creek, they all everywhere, but all from that Country and they all got stories to tell in their own different language group, that’s why I do translate all their stories into English from all their different language group and make sure that it’s all right story not other story. CD: Has that been a really big job for you? TL: Yeah, big job – sometimes it hard, sometimes easy but we have to do it, to figure it out. Some good stories, some sad stories, But that’s how life goes, I guess. NM: What would, if there was one thing that people would take away from looking at this exhibition, what would you hope that that would be, the one main thing? TL: What I hope the people take away from this exhibition is the truth of what the Canning Stock Route is about , and yeah, the truth really. How the Canning Stock Route came about. How it moved people all around the Kimberly area. CD: How important is leadership for all the young people for all the different jobs? How important do you think it is for these young ones to work in the arts, work in film? TL: I reckon it’s important because art tell you too many stories, old people, stories they paint, that little painting or big painting tell you too many stories about that Country and it’s important because young people now days don’t understand that, you know. And the mob now growing up need to understand that isn’t just a painting, they look at it like ‘ahh, look at this painting, it’s just lines over this dots and this scribble everywhere’, but all them things got stories, got meaning and, like that old lady when she paint that tree Well 35 story, and when you have a look at it, that’s not a painting. But that painting’s got history, too many stories, and that’s what these young people they don’t understand. I think through this project it might make them more understand. CD: You were the main facilitator, you were the dude that put the whole Ngumpan workshop together, and some of the things you said at the time were pretty important when it came to the old people exchanging to the younger people, can you say anything about that intergenerational sharing? TL: Yeah, that woman, with the [XX - ?] woman, [XX - ?], [XX - ?], there’s one dance that hasn’t been performed for a number of years, because it’s Country on the Canning Stock Route, and we decided that we should ask this old fella, grandfather, [XX - ?], teach this other old fella, old Hanson Boxer, that dance and yeah, and teachin’ and singing them all singin’, and we had a meeting there, a lot of old ladies, Mon was there, Me, Tim I think, just talking about all the dances, [Kaningarra - ?], that dance and talking about to open up again so people can learn and sing and dance again, and it happened at Ngumpan, yeah. Hansen Boxer he danced a song and old people. What made me notice was, old people, they only really the ones who know how to sing it, and they aren’t gonna be there too long and we need to do more teaching, that’s what, were I work, back in Fitzroy, we’re talking about recording all these songs, the whole lot from [XX - ?] right down to [XX - ?] and the new one and other stuff too, you know record. CD: For that Ngumpan workshop there, it was the biggest group of people wasn’t there? TL: Yeah well, we cater for about 40 or 30 people but more than that came, we had too many kids, yeah all the kids were there doing something dancing – that’s teaching yeah, from old people down to the young ones and they’re all , yeah, they like dancing all them kids. CD: Was it true that all them young boys were lined up at the petrol station trying to get into cars? TL: Yeah, when we went into town to pick up a couple of stuff from [XX - ?] and fuel up, there were all these blokes, or one bloke come ask me for a lift to [XX - ?], and I said, ‘yeah come on, you can come’, and I thought it was one, then we had a car load. All these young boy from [XX - ?]. We take ‘em back and they all camped there, camped at the spring. They all had come for this workshop and plus we had ladies there teachin’ young girls how to make coolamon, boomerang making stuff, and collecting little [XX - ?] or little grass [XX - ?], yeah we camped there, one week. CD: And through this project time, do you wanna remember and list all the places and communities that you’ve been workin’ with [XX - ?], you’ve been to a lot of different parts of the Western deserts together, just so the audience can understand how you’ve been moving around. TL: Yeah, well from [XX - ?] to Cotton Creek, [laughs] ahh, from Cotton Creek to 33, yeah from everywhere [XX - ?], [XX - ?], [XX - ?], Fitzroy, this project here it take me everywhere, I thought, to me really this project was only in our area, but he went right down, goes through too many language groups, and you know you got , probably get people living in Perth and they probably come from that area, parents or grandparents come from [XX - ?]. And yeah, it’s in a way real good meeting up with people, other people from that one road, through the project. And these girls are, Hayley and Louise, and young Morika, for them too, you open their eyes too so they can meet other people, make them more proud in what they’re doing. CD: You’ve been to Perth as well, next year when we launch this exhibition you’ve got a really important job, because if anything, you know you’re keeping an eye on all of us, making sure everything’s happening properly. You’re very much the statesman for the project, for the politicians, leaders from around all the other states who will be coming and do you wanna … ? TL: Yeah well next year I’m gonna be the main part, so I’ll be making sure that people like John [laughs], and everybody doing the right thing. And yeah, we’ll have ministers and all kind of people there. All them people, who don’t even know about the Canning Stock Route, and with what they seen, they’ll find out what the Canning Stock Route is really. CD: Also a good chance to talk to them about any other ideas or things that KALACC is needing or wanting, what the old people are saying, you’re gonna have a direct communication. TL: Yeah well, when we’re talking in [XX - ?] too yeah, yeah like [XX - ?] and all kind of people I think through this project, them kartiya people might see what we do through FORM with this CSRP and then we got Kimberley people and Pilbara people, they’re strong people, strong minded people, so we gotta talk to them more. NM: Probably that’s a lot of what people don’t know that there are strong people there, you only hear the bad news. TL: Yeah, because what we do at KALACC, we do other stuff too – bringing back remains, and this and from Canberra mob too, so then find out that we people, we know nothing we got, we can talk to them and through this project we got one road, one, like all the people, all from that CSR they got one mind and one heart. One wangka [language], that’s what will make them see. CD: That’s beautiful. NM: Yeah. TL: That’s why this project got started, because there’s so much talent, so much strong talent and people in the region in a remote area, and that’s what the rest of the world needs to know. And particularly through KALACC and Mangkaja, that valley, in that valley there’s just so much happening. TL: Yeah, not too many stuff happening in Fitzroy at the moment. CD: Families are strong there though. TL: Mmm. CD: That’s the other thing that comes out from this project, really naturally, people sharing their stories. TL: Yeah, like this project, he like a family, like one big family, we all go together like one big family, from one area. Even though we come from other language group, different language groups. We’re all one. And from that one is that one history of all the whole road. CD: Wow, that’s cool NM: Fantastic. END
Video format: DVD/MiniDV/Quicktime movie
Video recording: 106 Kimberley Approvals, Tom, Louise IV's, Nov 09
Source: CSROH_214_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Putuparri Tom Lawford; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Name: Putuparri Tom Lawford

Putuparri Tom Lawford - Personal background and the CSR Project [ORAL HISTORY]


Synopsis: Putuparri Tom Lawford talks about his personal background, his work with the Kimberley Law & Culture Centre, and his work as a cultural advisor and translator on the Canning Stock Route Project. He speaks about flying with KJ Kenneth Martin from Fitzroy Crossing to Kunawarritji for three weeks on the Canning Stock Route trip. Tom talks about hearing both good and sad stories from his grandfathers as a kid. Tom also speaks about the Beijing launch; he says it was a good feeling to bring his daughters along so they could see his name on a painting.

Date: 2008-06-13
Art centre(s):
Language spoken: English
Catalogue number: CSROH_198_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Interviewed By: KJ Kenneth Martin
Location Recorded: William Street, Northbridge
Latitude/Longitude: -31.95/115.85

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Verbal Consent
Access: Public
Full transcript: KJ Kenneth Martin: Can you introduce yourself?

Putuparri Tom Lawford: My name is Tom Lawford, I come from Fitzroy, Fitzroy Crossing, I’m a Walmajarri Wangkajunga tribe, my black fella name is Putuparri and my skin is Tjakamarra, Jakarra.

KM: What do you do in Fitzroy?

TL: I work for KALACC, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre. Everything. I’m a field officer, we go out on trips. Mainly, the youth, Aboriginal youth, trying to get youth back into culture.

KM: What age groups?

TL: From twelve upwards. Eighteen, nineteen. ‘cause these days they losing it, culture, and I want to get them back into it.

KM: What sort of things to you guys do?

TL: We go on camps, on trips, take a couple of boys out, girls out, old people out. Teaching them how to dance or sing, hunting.

KM: What's your role here?

TL: At the moment I’m a cultural advisor. Making sure that everything’s done properly, you know. Like people say, make sure it’s the right thing, not the other way around. Mainly interpreting from language in English, stories from the Canning Stock Route, old people’s stories, putting them into English.

KM: How did you get involved in the CSR project?

TL: Me and KJ we got on a plane from Fitzroy and flew to Kunawarritji, Well 33. And, oh I had good fun on the Canning Stock Route, three weeks.

KM: How did you hear about it?

TL: Karen, Karen Daymen, she was on the team and she asked me, we done too many trips, Karen and I and other people, on the Canning Stock Route and off the Canning Stock Route, so she asked me if I could come on this trip – the Canning Stock Route trip. And … yeah.

KM: Do you have any association with the CSR?

TL: Yeah. Like, grandfather Country, you know, area. My grandfather used to roam the Canning Stock Route, before Wills, he travelled everywhere.

KM: Do you know any stories from the CSR?

TL: Couple of stories, yeah about people being killed and … good stories, and good stories, some sad stories, funny stories.

KM: Have you been hearing these stories from your grandfather?

TL: Yeah, from kid.

KM: What about that old man who was born under the Spinifex?

TL: No, that’s another. My grandfather’s cousin. Yeah, he’s from Gudal [?] area. He’s been recorded, one bloke recorded him, and he said that he was born in the desert and born under the Spinifex. How the bloody hell do you get born under the Spinifex? He must have been talking about dreaming or something. ‘I was born in the bush, I was born under the Spinifex’. Funny, you know. Old people in those days.

KM: What did you think of the launch yesterday?

TL: Good. Good feeling. Like, you can feel different when you’re walking through all the paintings, you think you’re on the Canning Stock Route. Different to how white people see it. They just see colours on the piece of paper, but the painting is a story, it has meaning, it’s not just dots or something different, them dots, they represent something. Even them lines they represent something.

KM: I noticed you brought your children to the launch

TL: Yeah, bring them along, so they can see …

[Talking about his children]

Yeah, I brought my children to see the history of the Canning Stock Route. Not through stories, through the paintings, because kids like drawing.

KM: Do you get to see your kids much? How many kids have you got?

TL: No, not much. I got four girls.

KM: So do you want to teach them about the culture?

TL: Yeah. They have to. Because I’m a Country man. My grandfather is a Country man, to be like him.

KM: What do you do when your not working?

TL: Socialise. Go to the local, with the mob. Sometimes go hunting, go fishing. Killer, stolen, paid for, anyway.

[Talking about hunting]

More better than buying. I like eating kangaroos and turkey, You got seasons, like the season you got now in Kimberley is turkey season. Because it’s cold and they’re fat and green grass about and insects and that. Turkey eat insect and kangaroo eat grass, after wet, after rain.

KM: When you see these paintings, do you know what they're about?

TL: Yeah. They’re about people’s life, their Country, their story, their dreaming, their culture. Like, we got no stories written down on paper, we got an oral history. We’ve got a history in our head, they tell you stories, pass on from them and now they start painting, they can paint their stories and their dreaming and their culture in their paintings.

KM: Do you do any painting?

TL: Not much. I do mainly sketching, drawings. That big painting there, we painted the wells from 33 to 39 and I did a little bit of painting on that. One well and a couple of lines. It was good. Painting with the old people they … when they’re painting they tell you stories about the place when they’re painting, funny stories, or one of us get up and do this or do that.

KM: Do they tell you what to paint? [The old people]

TL: Yeah. They tell me what to. Do this and that and … The old people tell me what to do. Like, I didn’t go and just paint, like, you gotta have a reason to paint, like you can’t just go out and paint. Because what people say, you can’t go in and paint other people’s area, Country, you’ve gotta have the OK from the people. And they asked me to give them a hand, help them paint it, so … Oh, it was good because … seeing the paintings last night at the opening and with my little name written on the piece of paper, I was happy.

KM: How do you feel about your name going overseas?

TL: Yeah, good, I might be famous.

KM: Is this your first show?

TL: Yeah. First time seeing my name on a piece of cardboard next to a big painting. And I had my little girl with me and she said, ay, Dad, I see your name on the paper, did you paint it? And I said yeah.

KM: How was the food? [At the launch]

TL: Food? Them little snacks? Yeah, it was alright. But the alcohol was more better.

KM: What did you do after the show finished?

TL: Oh, we went to tea. We went to a place near the river there, we had a feed and a few bears and then went back home.

KM: Have you been out at all this week?

TL: Yeah. Me and the boys, KJ, Clint and one of our T.O.’s Murungkurr. We went out, we had a good time, we didn’t do anything silly or stupid, we just had a good time.

KM: Did anything fun happen?

TL: Yeah, laughing at a couple of my mates that were funny on the dance floor. And one fella he nearly hit the roof ‘cause he was jumping to high.

KM: You reckon you can show us some dance moves?

TL: Later on. Next time I think we need to have a hidden camera. Just to record us having fun, we gotta have fun, we don’t want to be working.

KM: What’s all this about a pole?

TL: This fella, he likes to dance … pole dance, you know. He kept looking for a pole but he couldn’t find one, so … We have to bring him a pole. With lights. I think he’ll make a good pole dancer. With g-strings on, it’ll be just right.

END


Video recording: Tape 35
Source: CSROH_198_Putuparri_Tom_Lawford
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Putuparri Tom Lawford; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

The Desert N,S,E,W

Artist(s): Putuparri Tom Lawford

Art Centre(s): Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Size: 45x45
Medium: acrylic on linen

Place of creation: Well 46
Latitude/Longitude: -20.64184/126.28722

Artwork copyright: ©2013 Putuparri Tom Lawford
Catalogue ID: TL/89/NG
Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on use

Photographer: Tim Acker
Photograph date: 2008-06-15
Photography copyright: FORM
Format: Image
Category: Artwork

Artist(s) biography:
Putuparri Tom Lawford cultural adviser and senior translator Putuparri is a Wangkajunga man who lives in Fitzroy Crossing. In 2007 he worked as a translator and cultural adviser on the ‘return to country’ trip. He has helped to coordinate some of the project’s biggest cultural workshops on Country and provided the team with invaluable cultural guidance. Putuparri also works for the Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre, coordinating its cultural program and assisting with international repatriation. Putuparri is also an artist featured in the Canning Stock Route collection.

Accession ID: 20131011_FORM_MIRA_B0044_0073

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Kunawarritji to Wajaparni

Artist(s): Patrick Olodoodi (Alatuti) Tjungurrayi, Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi, Richard Yukenbarri (Yugumbari)
Tjakamarra, Jeffrey James, Pija Peter Tinker, Helicopter Joey Tjungurrayi, Clifford Brooks, Putuparri Tom Lawford

Date created: 2007
Art Centre(s): Papunya Tula Artists, Martumili Artists, Warlayirti Artists, Birriliburu Artists, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Size: 125.2x301
Medium: acrylic on canvas

Artwork Story: This collaborative men’s painting was produced by artists from five art centres. It illuminates the nature of the family relationships, which are grounded in Country.

This was where our people got together as one, along these wells. Our grandfathers too. They was all as one people, don’t matter [that they they’re from] different tribes. They came here, stay for a while, and then go back home.
Patrick Olodoodi (Alatuti) Tjungurrayi, Kilykily (Well 36), 2007

Crisscrossing this region — and the painting — are multiple Dreaming tracks that include important stories which, under Aboriginal law, are restricted to initiated men. Working under the guidance of the senior men, Jeffrey James and Patrick Tjungurrayi, each artist painted that part of Country with which he has close family ties.

All these waters, from that line to this line, are all our family trees. Where our mob used to go from one waterhole to another, all as one people. This is our family tree, this painting. Jeffrey James, Kilykily (Well 36), 2007

Traditional Knowledge: Jeffrey James: All this waters [from top to bottom of this painting] from that line to this line are all our family trees, where our mob used to go from one waterhole to another, all as one people. This is our family tree this painting.

Patrick Tjungurrayi: This was where our people got together as one along these wells. Our grandfathers too.

Helicopter Tjungurrayi: Yeah, all got together as one people from long way too.

JJ: Yeah, some mob came from here, some from there, all met up along these wells, jilas [spring/ancestral being- snake] before wells. People from the north, south, east, and west all came together.

PT: From everywhere.

HT: Yeah, from everywhere, they all came through here to this place.

JJ: Even the Wangkajunga mob came here, Juwaliny too. The Kukatja and the Wangkajunga came here.

HT: Manyjilyjarra.

JJ: Kukatja and Wangkajunga were always together, few Walmajarri too, Juwaliny maybe.

JJ: Yeah, they travelled right over our mob, even the Warnman too.

PT: Yeah, they was all as one people, don’t matter different tribes.

HT: They all came together here don’t matter where they come from, they all stayed here.

PT: They travelled right through here from Libral to the other end over there. Some times they went west to Nyila too from here now. They came here, stay here for a while and then go back home.

HT: Yeah, they went to every main waterholes, from this end to that end, yeah everywhere.

JJ: Even in the rain season they came here. That Wirnpa mob travelled this way too, right up to Kurtararra, that’s their run.

HT: They travelled right through this country, right up to Piparr. They just followed their line, dreaming tracks.


Location depicted: Kunawarritji (Well 33), Nyirpil (Well 34), Kinyu (Well 35), Pangkapirni (between Wells 35 & 36), Kirl Kirl (Well 36), Lipuru (Well 37), Wajaparni (Well 38), Kukapanyu (Well 39)
Place of creation: Well 36
Latitude/Longitude: -22.13954/125.28315

Artwork copyright: ©2013 Patrick Olodoodi (Alatuti) Tjungurrayi, Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi, Richard Yukenbarri (Yugumbari)
Tjakamarra, Jeffrey James, Pija Peter Tinker, Helicopter Joey Tjungurrayi, Clifford Brooks, Putuparri Tom Lawford
Catalogue ID: PO/JJ/HJ/TL/CW/RY/CB/104/JOINT
Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on use

Photographer: Jason McCarthy
Photograph date: 2010-05-18
Photography copyright: National Museum of Australia
Format: Image
Category: Artwork

Artist(s) biography: Patrick Olodoodi (Alatuti) Tjungurrayi
born about 1935
Manyjilyjarra, Kukatja language groups
Tjungurrayi skin group
Kiwirrkurra community
Papunya Tula Artists
Patrick was born at Mayilili, between Kunawarritji (Well 33) and Kiwirrkurra. With his older brother, Brandy, he walked the desert east of the Canning Stock Route. They regularly crossed the stock route and in 1958 Patrick followed the wells north out of the desert. After many years in Balgo, he returned to live near his Country at Kiwirrkurra. Patrick continues to move between Balgo and Kiwirrkurra, painting for both Papunya Tula and Warlayirti artists.

Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi
born about 1937, died 2009
Manyjilyjarra, Kukatja language groups
Tjungurrayi skin group
Kiwirrkurra community
Papunya Tula Artists
Walapayi was a maparn (traditional healer) who was famous throughout the desert and beyond. As a young man he once ate poisoned meat left by drovers in retaliation for spearing a camel. He left the desert in 1957 to look for his brother, Helicopter Tjungurrayi, who had been taken to Balgo. Walapayi eventually returned to Kiwirrkurra to be closer to his Country.

Richard Yukenbarri (Yugumbari) Tjakamarra
born 1958
Kukatja language group
Tjakamarra skin group
Kiwirrkurra community
Papunya Tula Artists
Richard is the son of Balgo artist Lucy Yukenbarri, and the stepson of Helicopter Tjungurrayi. Lucy was pregnant with Richard as she walked north along the Canning Stock Route after Helicopter was taken away. He was born at the end of this journey, at Parnkupiti Creek, which runs into Lake Gregory. Richard grew up on old Balgo mission and now lives in Kiwirrkurra with his wife, Takariya, who, in 1984, was one of the last people to leave traditional desert life.

Jeffrey James
born about 1948, died 2008
Manyjilyjarra language group
Panaka skin group
Kunawarritji community
Martumili Artists
I got pick up droving day back in 1959. I got pick up in Well 25. I went on a camel all the way down to Billiluna and I grow up in that place. I was only 13 when they pick me up. Born near Lake Disappointment, Jeffrey James walked the desert before travelling north with drovers to Billiluna and then Balgo mission. He later returned to Billiluna where he worked as a stockman and drover. He travelled widely in the Pilbara, Kimberley and Central Australia. In 1983 he established Kunawarritji community.

Pija Peter Tinker
born about 1946
Manyjilyjarra language group
Purungu skin group
Jigalong community
Martumili Artists
I was born in the desert, near Kunawarritji. I grew up in Marble Bar and went to school there. Later I moved to Jigalong. I worked as a stockman on Hillside, Balfour Downs station. My Country is Kunawarritji. Peter Tinker joined the 2007 ‘return to country’ trip at Kilykily (Well 36). As he painted his Country, he recalled his childhood in the desert, including the first time he saw aeroplanes flying overhead.

Helicopter Joey Tjungurrayi
born about 1947
Manyjilyjarra, Kukatja, Wangkajungka language groups,
Tjungurrayi skin group
Balgo community
Warlayirti Artists
Helicopter was born with blackhead snake Dreaming at Nyakin, south of Jupiter Well. He fell ill near Natawalu (Well 40) in 1957 and was flown by helicopter to Balgo. He is a respected maparn (traditional healer) and artist. He returned to his Country for the first time in 2000. My father got [my spirit] from [Nyakin], and my mother too … They were just taking me around them Countries, my mother and father. They took me everywhere.

Clifford Brooks
born 1959
Kartujarra, Manyjilyjarra language groups
Karimarra skin group
Wiluna community
Tjukurba Gallery
Clifford was born at Jigalong mission. He was educated on the mission and later at Port Hedland, but returned to Jigalong to work as a builder and cattleman. In the 1990s he was the chairperson of the community. In recent years Clifford has explored his personal and artistic heritage by painting the story and following in the artistic footsteps of his father’s brother, Rover Thomas.

Putuparri Tom Lawford
Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
Putuparri is a Wangkajunga man who lives in Fitzroy Crossing. In 2007 he worked as a translator and cultural adviser on the ‘return to country’ trip. He has helped to coordinate some of the project’s biggest cultural workshops on Country and provided the team with invaluable cultural guidance. Putuparri also works for the Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre, coordinating its cultural program and assisting with international repatriation. Putuparri is also an artist featured in the Canning Stock Route collection.
Artwork Diagram: kunawarritji_to_wajaparni_various_detail

Accession ID: 20131011_FORM_MIRA_B0044_0086

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Putuparri Tom Lawford

Born: 1971

Language Group(s): Wangkajunga
Community: Fitzroy Crossing
Art Centre(s): Ngurra Artists, Mangkaja Arts Resource Agency, Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre
CSR Project role: Senior translator, cultural adviser, artist

Biography: Putuparri is a Wangkajunga man who lives in Fitzroy Crossing. In 2007 he worked as a translator and cultural adviser on the 'return to Country' trip. He has helped to coordinate some of the project’s biggest cultural workshops on Country and provided the team with invaluable cultural guidance. Putuparri also works for the Kimberley Aboriginal Law and Culture Centre, coordinating its cultural program and assisting with international repatriation. Putuparri is also an artist featured in the Canning Stock Route collection.

Photographer: Tim Acker
Photograph date: 2008
Photography copyright: © FORM
Format: Image
Source: Images - Exhibition
Category: People
Accession ID: 20131016_FORM_MIRA_B0090_0057

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

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