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Balgo

Natawalu: the Helicopter Story

Story:Many of the people from the Western Desert followed the stock route out of the desert once the drovers began moving through the Country. Following the stock route to find things beyond the desert, many people settled in cattle stations or missions.

However, in 1957 'Helicopter' Tjungurrayi left the desert in a very different way. As a child he was seriously ill when a mining survey party landed their helicopter near his community near Natawalu. His mother’s sister Kupunyina (Kumpaya Girgaba’s mother) was also suffering from an ulcerated spear wound. Knowing about the mission at Balgo their relatives encouraged the survey crew to take them for medical attention.The kartiya [white people] flew him Balgo to get medical attention. When he failed to return his family travelled north in groups to find him.
 
First Walapayi then Brandy walked north to Balgo. Both eventually returned south, following the stock route wells, to bring their relatives back with them to the mission. Helicopter Tjungurrayi has been known by this name for so long, he can no longer remember what he was called before.

'My young brother [Helicopter] was so sick; he had sores everywhere and he was helpless, a little boy. I grabbed my little brother and showed them. So kartiya [white people] looked at his sores and said, "OK, we’ll take him", because he was so sick. So I asked the kartiya, "Are you going to bring him back?" He was speaking his language and I was speaking my language. I kept on saying, "Are you going to bring him back?" I waited, waited, waited for long and I wondered, "They’re not bringing him back!" Nothing. It was getting a bit longer, and I said to myself, I think I’ll go after him north. From there I kept walking right, long way, all the way to Balgo.' (Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi, 2007)

Media Creator:Nicole Ma

Media date: 2010
Story Location: Natawalu (Well 40)
-21.66779/125.78843

Media Description:Josephine Nangala recounts the first time she saw a helicopter, and the story of Helicopter Joey Tjungarrayi being taken by helicopter to Balgo for medicine.

Story contributor(s): John Carty, Helicopter Joey Tjungurrayi, Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi, Josephine Nangala

Art Centre(s): Warlayirti Artists
Publisher: FORM
Media copyright: FORM
Accession ID:20131024_FORM_MIRA_B0046_0004

This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Nangalaku May Doonday

Nangalaku May Doonday - schooling and work [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Nangalaku May Doonday gives a brief account of schooling, history, and interpreting and documenting stories as part of her current job.

Date: 2009-11
Art centre(s): Paruku Indigenous Protected Area
Catalogue number: CSROH_247_May_Doonday
Date: 2009-11
Location Recorded: Mulan
Latitude/Longitude: -20.102778/127.595278

Cultural Protocols: Public Access
Access: Public
Notes: Transcribed from fieldnotes by Monique La Fontaine. This transcript shifts between narration and direct speech from Evelyn.
Full transcript: May was born in Short Creek Station. She grew up in Billiluna. We moved to Mulan in about 1977. Before that we was growing up in Balgo and schooling there. I went to Balgo boarding school and Broome Nulungku college boarding school. And when I finished school teaching language. Today I still do some language in the IPA. I do interviewing for story and history with old people and translate and interpret stories and put them in the computer. Not only for our people but for all people here. They’re all in the computer and I do traditional stories and put them in the computer - they all there. Children’s story. And we do plants and animals. We all help together for there ladies and they do painting.

END
Source: CSROH_247_May_Doonday
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Nangalaku May Doonday; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Wijiji Anna Johns

Wijiji Anna Johns - life history [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Wijiji Anna Johns talks about being stolen by the nuns and raised in a dormitory. She escaped when she was married and then moved to Mulan to set up a community. She also talks about painting.

Date: 2009-11
Art centre(s): Paruku Indigenous Protected Area
Catalogue number: CSROH_246_Anna_Johns
Date: 2009-11
Location Recorded: Mulan
Latitude/Longitude: -20.102778/127.595278

Cultural Protocols: Public Access
Access: Public
Notes: Transcribed from fieldnotes by Monique La Fontaine. This transcript shifts between narration and direct speech from May.
Full transcript: Wijiji bush name
Ngardi language
Nakamarra skin
Balgo Country Mangkayi Area

Anna was born at Old Mission. And my first language was english because I was stolen by the nuns. They been schooling me there, they took me away ever since I was 1 ½ years old. I don’t know my Mummy and Daddy. But I know my step-father and mother – my dad’s brother and my mum’s sister – husband and wife. I was schooling there until I got married in 1968. That’s how I got out of the dormitory. I stayed in Balgo for while then went to Billiluna. Worked in Mongrel Downs came back to Balgo longtime after that came here now [Mulan] to setting up community with my husband Rex and starting up community for people, for family, that’s how we here now. I worked in school and stayed there with kids. Then I started doing art with Lulu this time in 2000. Like doing landscape and some kids are better than me. Anna has 5 kids.

END
Source: CSROH_246_Anna_Johns
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Wijiji Anna Johns; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Turnga Tossy Baadjo

Turnga Tossy Baadjo - helicopter story [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Turnga Tossy Baadjo tells the story of when her family forst saw a helicopter. She also talks about a massacre in her Country and hiding from trackers.

Date: 2008-05
Art centre(s): Warlayirti Artists
Catalogue number: CSROH_244_Tossie_Baddjo
Date: 2008-05
Transcribed By: Monique La Fontaine
Location Recorded: Balgo
Latitude/Longitude: -20.14/127.985

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on Use
Access: Public
Notes: Transcribed from fieldnotes by Monique La Fontaine. This transcript shifts between narration and direct speech from Anna.
Full transcript: Turnga Tossy Baadjo: Hello, my name is Tossy Baadjo and I’m Nangala and the story I’m going to tell is about what happened to my family when kartiya came and picked my families with the helicopter. I was born Irrawili [?] and then my parents would move around and then was came to that place was Natawalu, yeah [laughs]. Yeah, mmm. And my families saw helicopter was coming too, coming and they saw, because my family didn’t know what helicopter was they were calling devil, kukurr, kukurr means devil, that helicopter, big monster. [Correction 2009: We thought the helicopter was pilpinji – grasshopper] And they all ran and hide in the trees and spinifex and then Brandy and my brother Tjapanangka was there in the photo, and uncle, Uncle Wimmitji and Uncle Miki, they was there and when that helicopter land at that swamp they all ran and got their spear and start throwing and throwing it to, they thought it was a monster. And my mother had to dig a hole and put me in the, underneath the spinifex, because he was too scared to see a helicopter landed. They thought it, that helicopter gonna bite me and Melda, we was the smallest. [Tossy’s mother was taken by an eagle as a baby. She still has the claw marks on her shoulders]

So they went and meet the pilot. They dropped their spear. There were three drums. I don’t know who put three drums there for us survive for water. And this man who was driving the helicopter saw my families was skinny, not putting weight and he had to take, and Helicopter was bit sick too. That’s what my mother told me. He was sick and his mother. So Helicopter was crying, he wanted his mother to follow him. And we didn’t have anything to eat or we didn’t have anything to eat, so the helicopter pilot had to give us something to eat. And he was really sad and sorry to see all these young men were skinny and their ribs were showing and I was really, we was skinny too little ones, and bit sick us. Had to, and Helicopter went away now, he was bit sick. And we had to walk to Balgo. We walked from what that place now [Tim: Natawalu!] Natawalu, I don’t know ... yeah that place where Helicopter was picked up, we had to walk from that place to Jalyirr, had to go round and round looking for the track for our young, me and our young family was taken away by the police [Correction 2009: St John of God sister and priest], so we had to follow their track.

We saw those, our uncles and fathers, brothers getting sick all the way road. We had to follow the road now, Jalyirr right up to that turn off, through Billiliuna and Mulan road and we went through C25 [?], we had to stay there for a while, Melda make up a noise. We had to sleep there with no blanket, no fire, only a bit of shade in our tree, in, under the shade. Then we got up and e went to Kitji [?], where two trees are and my cousin had a baby boy, that was on Christmas day, Richard, we stay there … we saw a few stock man from Mulan. They gave us a killer and told us, ‘Don’t make a fire because we got a strict manager here’. So we was, I was that hungry, so I was I had to eat little bit of raw ... then we went to Parnkupiti, over the cut line going to Handover. We stay there and then we saw a light, a big bright light, pointing down to Balgo. And we had to walk now to the old sta ... um, to Kumantjayi [?] Creek and we saw a few like Helicop ... not, ah sorry Charlie Wallabi and Brandy, went hunting and they saw us and we, they went back to old mission and then after we went through where the hill is we saw Bye Bye and Sunfly and they told us, ‘Come on, we’ll take you over there to mission.’

And my mother was pretty sick too because when she was a young girl in the bush caught by an eagle [gestures to the top of her shoulders] yeah, she got all those marks here, here [shoulder/shoulder] and on his back and eyes from those claws, sharp one. So she was pretty sick she couldn’t handle me, she wasn’t looking after me properly. My sister was looking after me, Josephine. Took me to the dormitory now and Sister had to take me away. From there I never seen my families again. Me and Melda. That was a long walk we had from the bush, starving and Helicopter, when I saw Helicopter, I didn’t know his name I had to, I was listening to every kid: ‘Helicopter! Helicopter!’ and I was looking, ‘Who Helicopter? This one?’ and then I remember him, that he was taken away on the helicopter.

[Whispers fiercely] Nyamu?

Tim Acker: I got some question.

TB: Yeah.

TA: When you were at Natawalu were you a little little girl?

TB: Little one, just crawling.

TA: And that’s the first time you been see kartiya then?

TB: That’s the first time I see kartiya.

TA: What did you think?

TB: I thought it was a ghost! Yeah.

TA: Did you touch those kartiya then or did you hide all the time.

TB: No, hide all the time.

TA: And where you been born?

TB: Irrawili.

TA: And where’s that Country?

TB: That’s near, not far from that place where Helicopter been picked up.

TA: You been back?

TB: No, I want to go back and see my Country but nothing. Never.

TA: What about that first time you seen bullock?

TB: Bullocky? Oh we thought it was kukurr, we didn’t know that bullocky, we kept on running away. My uncle was spearing, we thought it was a monster but nothing. [Helicopter talking in language background. Tossy whispering] What’s another question?

TA: When you travelled, walked up from Natawalu was there a track?

TB: There was a track [Helicopter: No, no track I been go up ‘copter] no, bullocky track, no, we saw a track, camel track and then after we saw our man who was caught by a tracker at the police that’s why we had to follow the track.

TA: That’s what you followed?

TB: All the way here.

TA: How many when you were walking up? How many people were you travelling with?

TB: I travelled with my families and my uncle families Wimmitji and my brother, with Loomoo’s husband and my cousin and Melda’s father, and his father name is Government, there.

TA: Wow. After this we’ll write out that family, put him on the paper ‘cause that would be really good to see how this family fit. So that was big mob people who walked?

TB: Yeah. We was the last people who came. [Chopper talking genealogy in background, Tim tells him we’ll do it after on the paper] We was the last people to came out from the bush.

TA: Why did you walk out, why did you leave that bush?

TB: No, because Government, Melda’s father went to Jalyuwan, Jalyuwan and so Father Kumantjayi, Father Alphonse, yeah and he told, he was like, ‘Bring all your families’, because there were lot of people was there from the bush and they had lotta food and they was a church.

TA: Where was that?

TB: Jalyuwan.

TA: So Wimmitji didn’t come up to Jalyuwan?

TB: No, Melda’s father Government, he went by himself to meet the others, like the Apostles, you know where they went? Like that. And Father Alphonse and Father McGuire said, ‘Go back and bring your families’. That’s why he went back to bush, got us into group and then we came walking.

TA: Big mob walking one time.

TB: Mmm. It was a really hot day and we had no water so my uncle saw a bird, a tree, and it had birds and he knew it had water underneath, so my auntie and my cousin and my sister, she was the youngest, I was only a, just starting up to be four years old, I had to dig and they found it so we had to drink and start walking and it was a really hot day. No, you know thing to eat, we couldn’t catch anything.

TA: So what did you think? ‘Sause walking up this way is a long way from your Country.

TB: Yeah I was worried it was too far. I was going to die because I was the youngest. I was the youngest [laughs] sorry. No, I was youngest and my sister was telling me how did you live? How did you survive right to Balgo? It was really hot, no shade to sleep. They had to dig a hole, sand, and put me and Melda in the cool, you know, underneath? Covered up with our cool. And my cousin brother who passed away his name Billy Wimmitji, that’s his name and Kevin Loomoo, we was the four youngest one who came. I was the smallest. My cousin brother Billy and Melda and Kevin Loomoo, yeah.

TA: And you said after you came and your Mum was sick. Did your Mum and Dad go other way or ... ?

TB: No.

TA: How come you never saw your parents again?

TB: I didn’t see my families because those sisters wouldn’t let us go out only, they don’t let us go, they keep us there, only, only, school holidays we go see our parents.

TA: Did your parents live Jalyuwan or did they go walking?

TB: No, only my father was travelling and walking, see he’s looking at, looking after his Country Nyila, only my mother was staying at Jalyuwan looking after the sheep. And he comes back, my father comes back from that place, that’s the time I see my father when he, when I meet him half way road where that Jalyuwan Creek is, that road goes to round the Lake.

TA: And when you been growing up did you see those other drovers travelling the stock route from Billiluna down?

TB: I didn’t see them I was in the dormitory all the time. The only thing I seen was my father when he passed away that’s all.

TA: Did he pass away here?

TB: Yeah, where that brown building near Palitja Maparn office, that’s where was the morgue was.

TA: Anything else for story you wanna tell?

TB: I was gonna tell you that other story that my mother, not my, yeah my mother told me about police and a tracker. They were coming to that place, I forgot that place it’s really hard to say that name. My families went hunting and me and Melda we were dig, we was put in the hole, covered up, put a spinifex on top of us and then, because they saw a tracker, and police coming with a horse, horses galloping, and people was sitting around meeting place, they was talking, they didn’t hear the horses galloping, and one of them, one of the young fella, do I have to call my brother name? [Tim: yeah you can] yeah I can call him easy. [Tim: yuwayi] Johnny, Johnny Lakapanja saw the horses coming, kukurr! kukurr! But we didn’t know what was horse was you know, it’s a mamu! mamu! And they all got up it was too late, the elders got up with a spear trying to spear the horse, the police, but they shoot him, they shoot everyone. This is a really story and it’s a true story and I never forget this story. They shot at our boss, the leader and their boss, everyone: ladies, young girls, pregnant girls, horses putting weight on the little ones and they took all the young men and they put a chain on their neck and they carried a ball in their hand and they had to walk. But lucky me and Melda, lucky our parents put us in a hole and put sand, so we can’t scream, you know they might hear us and they might shoot us, but they put us in the hole, covered up with the sand and they put a spinifex. We could easy see the policemen shooting and trackers and our parents came back from hunting and they was crying and my uncle too, but my uncle’s brother was with a chain, didn’t see him. Wimmitji was there with a thing, with a chain and a ball. What is, all round we could hear them crying, some and my mother and my cousin sister had to dig us, pull us out. We went down to see that place it was all blood everywhere. After that they got there, put them in a hole and put a kerosene on them and it was really sad. I was always think about that place. But it’s a really sacred place now. But when I go to Wangkatjungka for these funerals I’ll ask my mother where that place is, where they got shot for no reason. That’s why I told my children the story and when I tell the story to my children they have tears come out, they think about, must be their great great grandfathers and they great uncles, aunties. I lost my families there. I didn’t see my mother, my mother’s mother, my father’s mother, never. They was there. I keep going, telling stories to my children, even my stories when I came from the bush. That’s all the stories. Mmm.

[KD’s notebook from conversations with Eubena & Nyumi at Balgo: Biddee Baadjo, Tossy & Melda last lot to come in to Balgo.]

END
Source: CSROH_244_Tossie_Baddjo
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Turnga Tossy Baadjo; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Jukuja Dolly Snell, Ngarralja Tommy May, Manmarr Daisy Andrews

Jukuja Dolly Snell, Ngarralja Tommy May, Manmarr Daisy Andrews - droving [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Jukuja Dolly Snell, Ngarralja Tommy May, and Manmarr Daisy Andrews talk about drover men and women on the Canning Stock Route.

Date: 2009-03
Art centre(s): Mangkaja Arts Resource Agency
Language spoken: Kriol, English
Catalogue number: CSROH_230_Jukuja_Dolly_Snell_Ngarrlija_Tommy_May_Manmarr_Daisy_Andrews
Date: 2009-03
Transcribed By: Monique La Fontaine
Location Recorded: Fitzroy Crossing
Latitude/Longitude: -18.17/125.59

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on Use
Access: Public
Notes: This transcript is from fieldnotes written in a notebook by Karen Dayman.
Full transcript: Dolly Snell: Mother been bring me up in Kurtal, take me to Balgo, keep me there. I been grow up and shift from station to Fitzroy [Crossing].

Tommy May: How many people been walkin’ Canning Stock Road? People been travel across from Country side to Canning Stock Road for bullock. Get a meat take him back Country.

Daisy Andrews: Splinters [Flinders?], Jamili [Chum Lee], Pakala [Jack Gordon for uncle] handling the camel with his wife, [Tommy] Bull, Roger [Wangkajunga – Olive Knight mob - this was how Daisy described it but we also learned that Roger was also Chamia Samuels’ father], Pelican – Jamili’s brother. All the Japalyi. Gogo, Jimmy Bieunderry – Wally [Dowling] pick him up kid.

DS: All my sisters been droving. Nyuju [Stumpy Brown], two Wakajiya — mother for Jimmy Bieunderry — ‘nother sister Jinamungkurr [translated here as ‘four foot’ or ‘little bit of toes’ reference to her missing toe]. Minyayi [Dolly’s sister]. Minyayi been leave that little boy, Jungurrayi, behind.

TM: Johnny Boy, Billiluna, Wimpingkil, Roger’s son. Putting old people’s names back in the book. Nyuju husband [first one] walked all the way to Warburton. Big war between tribes – spear fight. He came from southern Canning Stock Route.

END
Source: CSROH_230_Jukuja_Dolly_Snell_Ngarrlija_Tommy_May_Manmarr_Daisy_Andrews
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Jukuja Dolly Snell, Ngarralja Tommy May, Manmarr Daisy Andrews; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Kumpaya Girgaba

Kumpaya Girgaba - painting first time [ORAL HISTORY]
Synopsis: Kumpaya Girgaba talks about learning to paint for the first time in Kurungal. Before that syhe had exclusively made baskets.

Date: 2009-10-01
Art centre(s): Martumili Artists
Language spoken: Manyjilyjarra
Catalogue number: CSROH_171_Kumpaya_Girgaba
Date: 2009-10-01
Transcribed By: Ngalangka Nola Taylor
Translated By: Ngalangka Nola Taylor
Location Recorded: Parnngurr
Latitude/Longitude: -20.492731/118.537344

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Verbal Consent
Access: Public
Full transcript: Kumpaya Girgaba: When I was in Kurungal [Wangkatjungka community] I was learning to make basket and other people they was doing painting, that’s how I learned from that side. I learned to make basket first before i started making painting. The painting that they was doing was only for them Walmajarri, Wangkajunga, Fitzroy people. My daughter Kuji and Nada and Wanina, they learned me by watching how they do basket making. I was making basket while all Fitzroy people was painting like this. I just sat and watched the others painting, I never done a painting before, I was first time to see other people doing it. So from there I came back to Jigalong stayed around there and from Jigalong I kept on going Patjarr [Karilwara]. I went and stayed with Katapi and with Giles family and from there I learned how they was doing painting there. I watched their side of doing stories, putting them in paint. And I was given a canvas to paint on for a first time and I start painting and learned from others, for me it was first time to put something on the canvas and to paint stories. From all the Karilwara mob I learned. Before that I just used to do basket making but it still was taught by other families from Fitzroy side, Kurungal. So I came back. and I’ve learned from there and I came back to do painting in my side and even taught the others to paint.

Hayley Atkins: What about Balgo?

KG: No I didn’t learn anything up there, I wasn’t sure about doing painting straight away there. Only in Patjarr my auntie showed me how to paint and watched what sort of stories to put in, I asked her and she told me what stories to put down and which part of the Country I should do, only my area and my stories on my side. So I learned from my auntie, and there I’m painting and also from there I never stop painting and first when I started I did so many, lots and lots of painting ... and so we taught each other and everybody else is doing it now …

John Carty: I thought you learned to paint Balgo side.

KG: No, I was already taught. I just went there and I came back and started to paint back in home where I live.

END
Video recording: 176 NOREENA KADIBIL, KUMPAYA GIRGABA
Source: CSROH_171_Kumpaya_Girgaba
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Kumpaya Girgaba; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Katajilkarr to Kaningarra

Katajilkarr to Kaningarra' - Miriam Napanangka. Catalogue Reference: MO/32/PT. Canning Stock Route bush trip 1- 4 August 2007.

Date created: 8/3/2007
Photographer: Tim Acker
Location: Well 36, Kilykily
Latitude/Longitude: -22.13954/125.28315

People: Miriam Napanangka
Art Centre(s): Papunya Tula Artists

Copyright: FORM
Format: Image
Category: Image
Source: 6 Canning Stock Route bush trip 1-4 August 07
Accession ID: 20131213_B0005_0086

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Name: Kamara Brandy Tjungurrayi

Kamara Brandy Tjungurrayi - Father Alphonse and walking to Balgo [ORAL HISTORY]


Synopsis: Brandy talks about walking from Kunawarritji to Balgo, and how Father Alphonse brought the desert people in. He also tells how he got his name, from branding cattle.

Date: 2007-08-01
Art centre(s):
Language spoken: Kukatja
Catalogue number: CSROH_28_Kamara_Brandy_Tjungurrayi
Interviewed By: John Carty
Transcribed By: Anne Nowee
Translated By: Anne Nowee
Location Described: Balgo
Location Recorded: Billiluna
Latitude/Longitude: -19.58329/127.633

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on Use
Access: Public
Notes: Also filmed in CSR Interviews 9; time codes included with transcripts.
Full transcript: Kamara Brandy Tjunguttayi : I’m Tjungurrayi, My name is Tjungurrayi. From Nyaru, I was staying there and I walked to Kunnawarrijti. From Kunnawarritji I walked to … I walked to Nyipil. From Nyipil to Kukapanyu, from Kukapanyu to Kilykily, from Kilykily to Lipuru. I had a rest and then from Lipuru to Wajaparni. Then I went to Natawalu. Then to Tjirru [?]. Then to Kulyayi. Then to Wati Nyinparr [?].

Then we went to another well … [thinking of the name] … Tjinti Tjinti [?]. Then Tjinti Tjinti to Kutjarra. Then to Katarrapurru. I was still walking from well to well.

To Kumunyirra. To Kaningarra. From Kaningarra to Lampu. Then to Tjiriknu. Then to Kilangu Kilangu. Big creek and rockhole. To Ngarlku. Old station.

I saw all the people sitting around. The stockmen. That old man [Charlie Tjakamarra] told me to go over there [indicating the stockyards]. Then to go to Old Mission. He put clothes on me. And told me to go to Old Mission.

I went to Old Mission and they saw me there. And Father [Alphonse] told me to go back to the bush and get all my families. And I walked back down my own track.

I went and saw one stockman. One kartiya [white person] called Dan. He was droving up to Billiluna. And they saw me at Kukapanyu. They were droving from Wiluna, these stockmen.

They told me to stay at Kukapanyu and they would pick me up on their way back. I saw all my families at Kukapanyu. They picked me up and took me to Billiluna.

I was mustering here [indicating yards behind him] now. Len [kartiya] have me work. I was working around here. I was working and he gave me a horse to ride. Right here. I rode the horse here inside the yard. I put the saddle on the horse. They put me on the horse.

They put me on the horse and we went mustering. Mustering the cattle. Mustering around the Lake [Lake Stretch]. I was working. I was working around Lake Stretch. We were putting the cows in the yard. I was branding them.

I put the wire in the fire. I put the brand in the fire and branded the bullock. Some were eartagging them. And I was branding them.

I was working with Mel Brown and Len. Len told all the young fellows to come and listen. That’s when they gave me my name, Brandy. They were all sitting around and he asked if it was alright to give me the name ‘Brandy’, like branding the cattle.

[He retells the same story again]

Len gave me my name. The Boss [referring to Len]. Len Brown … He was my boss. They were all happy with this. My name is Brandy now. I was working here mustering. The old people looked after me. They have passed away now.

I was mustering around Sturt Creek and then I went to Old Mission afterwards. I stayed at old mission, then we moved to Wirrimanu [?], new Balgo. They were drilling for water here. We were building all the houses, the church, monastery, the convent. Government didn’t help us, only the Bishop.

We got no Chairman, council not strong enough now. We are going to fight back to get the council and Chairman. We are working for the government now.

Now we are living at Balgo.

END


Video recording: 9 IV
Source: CSROH_28_Kamara_Brandy_Tjungurrayi
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Kamara Brandy Tjungurrayi; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Name: Miriam Napanangka

Miriam Napanangka - Country and her mother's Dreaming place [ORAL HISTORY]


Synopsis: Miriam Napanangka tells a story of her Country and her mother's Dreaming place, Winpurpurla.

Date: 2007-08-01
Art centre(s):
Language spoken: Kukatja, Kriol
Catalogue number: CSROH_18_Miriam_Napanangka
Interviewed By: Karen Dayman
Transcribed By: Monique La Fontaine
Translated By: Partially translated by Monique La Fontaine
Location Described: Winpurpurla
Location Recorded: Kutjuwarri (Well 46)
Latitude/Longitude: -20.64184/126.28722

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Verbal Consent
Access: Public
Notes: This oral history refers to painting MO/63/PT, Winpurpurla, also mentioned in CSROH_20.
Full transcript: Miriam Napanagka: This is my mother’s Dreaming place, Winpurpurla. Winpurpurla is water, soakwater. There are sandhills all around this Country. This is my Country, my mother’s Dreaming place. Winpurpurla is on the way north from Mangkurla near Balgo on the Canning Stock Route.

END


Source: CSROH_18_Miriam_Napanangka
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Miriam Napanangka; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

Name: Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi

Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi - Helicopter being taken to Balgo [ORAL HISTORY]


Synopsis: Charlie Tjungurrayi tells the story of when a helicopter landed at Natawalu and people got food. He also talks about how (Joey) Helicopter got taken to Balgo because he was sick, and how Charlie travelled to find him.

Date: 2007-08-08
Art centre(s):
Language spoken: Kukatja
Catalogue number: CSROH_15_Charlie_Wallabi_Walapayi_Tjungurrayi
Interviewed By: John Carty
Transcribed By: Ngalangka Nola Taylor
Translated By: Ngalangka Nola Taylor
Location Recorded: Natawalu (Well 40)
Latitude/Longitude: -21.66779/125.78843

Cultural Protocols: Public Access - Restrictions on Use
Access: Public
Notes: Includes reference to another story told by Charlie (CSROH_12).
Full transcript: Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi : See that dunes, tali, over there? That was our camp. We used to camp there. From there we used to go hunting. Time to time we used to stay longer and hunt. Used to get lots and lots of kuka [meat], goanna and other small animals, which we used to chase after before we could catch them. Marla [little wallaby], and rabbit and other kind of meat. We used to get a lot of kuka. And then all of a sudden we heard a noise when we were eating that sounded different and we said to each other, ‘What was that noise and where is it coming from?’ When it got closer the air was making a funny noise and we thought it was a big bird. And it came closer and closer and came over us, flew past. The people on the helicopter were watching us as they flew over. We watched it go past, over us, for a second time and then it landed next to the jurna [soak]. So the kartiya came back for a second time because he [must have] met some puntu [Aboriginal people] before. Just one chopper came down with a lot of kartiyas.

I was coming back from hunting. And the plane circled round me and I stopped to watch and showed them that I had goannas, holding it up to show them. I was standing on top of the dune. They were circling around, I was holding up the goanna. So after circling it went back and landed on this wala [saltlake — where he’s sitting at Natawalu]. I went back to my camp and I dropped everything. I had my kuka and I went back up to there. But the others they were too scared to go and meet them, they were hiding. But I bravely walked towards them and went and stood next to them and asked. But others were still away on a hunting trip, and people that come back from hunting were scared and frightened. After showing myself, how I was brave, I went back next day, and asked them for mirrka: Give me some food’. I was showing them with hand signs: ‘Food, [gesturing hand to mouth] that you can eat.’ I drew some pictures on the sand to show them, ‘Like this sort of food.’ So the kartiya looked at the picture then went around and got something. So he went and gave me one and showed me how to eat a piece himself. But my one, I just kept it in my hand. If I were to eat it straight away, I might die. [Note: see CSROH 12 — poison meat story]

So, I watch him eat it first. Might be poison. Making sure I kept it, I didn’t want to put it in my mouth straight away. I watched him carefully that he chewed and swallowed. And then I gave my piece back to him to watch him eat it and make sure it was ok. I asked him first, ‘You eat it first, my piece.’ So he took half of it. I was making sure it was alright to eat. So he took two piece: first and second one from my piece. Then I took that piece and watched what was in it and then bit it off slowly, chewing and eating it. And then I said, ‘Oh he did take the piece! He did eat it and swallow it he didn’t spit it out!’ And then I start talking in my language, and saying that ‘This is our Ngurra, our Country. We are here in our country, doing hunting and getting small animals in our own home. Snake and all, wallaby, pussycat, fox, you name it. Our own bushmen food.’

So others watched me, and they all wondered what I was doing. And then I called them in. ‘Come here!’ They was all hiding and peeping out to see what I was doing, watching me. And I showed my piece: ‘I’m eating this! [Mimics eating, biting cautiously.] Come here!’ So they got up slowly and walked towards where we were, coming closer. So they all came down to this wala [?] and I told them, ‘Don’t be afraid or scared. I’m not scared to eat this and die.’ So he left some tucker for us and the chopper people went back to where the chopper came from, to Balgo, and went and got the other chopper and together they came back to Natawalu, two helicopters. The first one came and saw that there was only a few of us and when he came back with the other chopper there was a lot of us. And he thought, ‘Oh, before we only saw a few people, now there’s a big mob. Why are there so many puntu around?’ He was thinking they must have all come out from hiding in the cave. And even we wondered. There’s so many kartiyas, we wondered if they came back with their backstops, to get us and eat us.

So I was feeling scared inside but I kept on talking to them, trying to make myself feel better. So they gave us a lot of food, even the dry flour. The others were still scared, they were still hiding. Even young people, and some old people. So I called them out. ‘Come down here! They giving us a food! We’ll all eat and we can all die together!’ So they start coming, two by two, sitting down next to it, pair of twos. I was talking my own language to them kartiyas even though they couldn’t understand me and I couldn’t understand them. As they came down one at a time and then two and two, and two and one, and some could come in three, and got bigger, puntu coming down from the tali, from each Ngurra. Kartiya was watching more and more people coming and getting close to where they were. And the kartiya looked at us when we got closer and sat down, and he was putting out food for everyone. And I was wondering why he was putting tucker out for each people and speaking in English, not putting it in big pile for all the Martu. And none of the Martu spoke English so they just got there and sat down and waited, they couldn’t answer back.

And once they all went down, and everyone just went down slowly in a group from each Ngurra until they were all down there, puntu were wondering, ‘Why they all want us down here?’ And I was saying to myself, ‘Oh, they getting out food for us and they probably going to kill us after feeding us.’ But I start speaking in my language saying, ‘I’m the only one bravely talking on behalf of all this people. You’re probably going to feed us all and kill us and eat us.’ So he ended up giving a bag of flour to each families so they could take it home and cook for themselves. So we went and took it home, cooked it, ate it and we kept going back for more. So the chopper left to go, and they kept on coming back for us. We didn’t move from the Ngurra. We stayed in the one Ngurra Natawalu.

So we wondered how they keep coming back and seeing us still around and alive? We think we’ll all go away from them, leave this Ngurra. But the womans decide to say, ‘No, we can’t leave all the tucker behind. We got so many we can’t carry them all.’ Drum of flour, big one. Even kartiya showed how they used to cook porridge. They cooked up one porridge and gave some for me to try or taste it. I looked at it first and said, ‘Do I have to eat this?’ So we had it in one big plate. I was on the other side and I make sure I watch him eating it first and then I started putting it in my mouth. So I think, ‘I’ll be the first one to die. He’s probably feeding me so I’ll fall over dead and he’s going to eat me.’ ‘Cause I was the only one around them to taste everything. I put myself up for testing all the food. Everything that I had to taste. He even showed me how to eat. I had to put it in my mouth and then swallow it down. I watched him slowly even though we ate together in one plate. And I said, ‘He’s probably trying to kill me. He was just feeding me so I can eat and die and after when I’m dead he’s going to put me in the waru [fire] and eat me.’

So kartiya people came back for a second time. And my young brother [His name was Helicopter Tjungurrayi] was so sick, he had sores everywhere and he was helpless, a little boy. So we went and showed kartiya. Even though I wasn’t speaking English I said in my language, ‘Look at this little boy, he’s got a lot of sores, big sores’. And I called out my little brother, ‘Come closer!’ And he couldn’t walk properly, he limped over closer. He couldn’t walk over, so he crawled in. So I grabbed my little brother and I showed him to them. ‘See, this is all the sores he got.’ So kartiya looked at his sores and said, ‘Ok, we’ll take him,’ because he was so sick. So kartiya picked him up and put him inside [the helicopter]. So I asked the kartiya, ‘Are you going to bring him back?’ And he said, ‘Yuwayi, I’ll bring him back.’ I think he probably said, ‘Yes, I’ll bring him back,’ even though I couldn’t really understand his kartiya language. We couldn’t understand each other anyway. He was speaking his language and I was speaking my language, but I’m sure we could still understand each other.

I kept on saying, ‘Are you going to bring him back?’ He probably said, ‘Yes, I’ll bring him back.’ I waited, waited, waited for long. And I wondered, ‘They’re not bringing him back! Nothing!’ But it was just because we couldn’t understand each other. It was getting a bit longer, and I said to myself, ‘I think I’ll go after him, north’. So I start walking north to another water, camp the night. And I kept on walking to another soak, another well. I kept on going. I came to this big well, and I climbed up on the ladder and looked down. It was deep down, and I wondered, ‘I don’t think I’ll go down. This is too deep! I might go one way if I go down to get it! I might drown and be dead.’ I just left. I walked and I camped at another water. And then the next day I start travelling and kept going and I came to another water, Kulyayi [Well 42]. And I looked at it and I said, ‘Oh its got water in it!’ I was happy to get water because the water was up higher and I could reach it easier.

I drank the water and then I decided to go hunting, I went along and found a fresh track of pussycat. I followed that pussycat till he went up the tree and he went into the yurltu, the hollow inside. From Kulyayi I followed, up the dunes, and followed the pussycat into the hollow. I climbed up slowly and saw the pussycat inside and said to one bloke, ‘Pass me a spear so I can spear it from the hollow. Pass me one with the hook so I can spear it.’ So I speared the pussycat and I pulled it out and got him from the hollow. But the cat was still alive, he was just biting on the spear, so I threw it down on the ground with the spear. From the top of the tree I threw it down. So I went down and killed the pussycat, picked it up and I was just about to start walking off and I saw somebody behind the tree peeping, and I thought to myself, ‘Who’s this man going to kill me?’ So I grabbed hold of my spear, and put a mangkuju, spear thrower, on and I walked up to him ready to throw the spear.

When I got closer he wasn’t moving. He was all stiff, not even moving, he didn’t respond to me, probably dead, I wondered. Even though he was on his belly, looking as if he was creeping, he was still looking up straight in the air, even though he was dead. So I said to myself, ‘What I’m going to do with him? I think I’ll dig and bury him.’ So I start digging shallow grave, enough to fit him in. It’s like digging for a dog. So I grabbed a stick and tossed him, turning him over to the hole, and placed him how I found him, on his tummy instead of on his back. And I covered him half way, left some of him uncovered. So I covered half of his body from his foot up to the shoulders, his head was still coming up. So when I walked off and turned around and looked, I saw his kurti [spirit] was sitting. That was his spirit. So his spirit started looking like a kangaroo. And we all asked each other, ‘Let’s kill that kangaroo!’ It wasn’t too far, it was so close to us, and we was just ready to spear. So that marlu [kangaroo] shifted to another place. Didn’t go far, it was still close. Then we all throw the spear at him but he got up, shifted into another spot, sat. That kangaroo wasn’t a little one, it was SO big! So I tell the others, ‘It’s so big shall we leave it?’ We left that kangaroo and we walked off back to the kapi [water] Kulyayi. We came back and camped the night and started the next day, kept on going north. From there I kept walking right, long way, all the way to Balgo.

And first time, face to face I met up again with stockmen, people that I know, even my father-in-law [at Balgo], and I wave my hand to them and I asked them when I stopped there, where those people [my brothers and mother] I asked them [stockmen]. And they told me, they just there, east, with mans ladies kids and all, everybody there. I saw Bonney and my other brothers they was there before I came in. And they also gave me a clothes and shirt, so I slept a night there and next morning I went east, I was west side of Canning Stock Route and I wanted to go east. So when I went nearly all the way to Balgo I got clothes and I seen house for the first time from long way. I didn’t go in I just saw houses and I stopped to camp a night. And next day I walked in and I seen jamu [grandfather] chopping wood, for fire. I creeped up close and stopped and watched, and I went ‘BOOO!’, and he was surprised and looked around and I showed myself waved my hands, I’m here. So then I walked up to him and said I came from long way, I walked closely and that old jamu then took me to show me where the family was and everybody came from every corner of the camp, kids, young and old.

[Then one of the ladies in the background tells Charlie: nyamu - finish now, but he gets upset with them and says] ‘I want to tell the truth about my life! How I was a bushman and I walked in and I went straight where the mans were not up to the kids! I’m talking right way, I’m not talking liar! I never do nothing wrong …’

[He pulls off his microphones in a rush then and gets up to walk away. John says, that was a palya wangka, Wallabi laughs sheepishly and tape ends]

END


Video recording: 8 IV - Well 36, atmos
Source: CSROH_15_Charlie_Wallabi_Walapayi_Tjungurrayi
Rights: Cultural Owner & Storyteller: Charlie Wallabi (Walapayi) Tjungurrayi; © FORM, transcript only

Provenance: This material is sourced from Ngurra Kuju Walyja — the Canning Stock Route Project, which was initiated in 2006 by FORM and developed in partnership with Birriliburu, Kayili, KALACC, Mangkaja, Martumili, Ngurra, Papunya Tula, Paruku IPA, Warlayirti and Yulparija artists and art centres.

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